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Sampling of a calorimeter pulse taken at the best timing pulse peak. So, all we care for measurement purposes would be this initial current peak. So, the only way to have a reasonable data flow and still be able to make physics at a reasonable rate is to select events before recording. In other words, New Physics could also be searched for indirectly. We have Silent Hill Game torrents for you! Nokia opera mini software. Sampling of a calorimeter signal taken too late. Now, imagine that the LHC could only produce a tenth of this number of collisions 3 million , we would have to wait 10 days for a detectable Higgs. Viber 2. The above photos and video are courtesy of Ralph Steinhagen. Good luck! Muitos, muitos eventos têm de ser analisados antes de se encontrar alguns que sejam realmente interessantes. Als rhizomatischem Netz nach und analysiert am Beispiel von Silent Hill 2 ihr ästhetisches. To find a Higgs, you have to search a lot. Contrariando seu marido, Rose decide lev. Vejamos o caso da famosa partícula de Higgs. Tuesday, April 1st,

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A probabilidade de gerar um Higgs é bem pequena. Mas a quantidade de eventos produzidos dessa forma é muito menor mais ou menos uma vez por dia! Algumas vezes, o LHC produz mais de 30 milhões de colisões por segundo.

Assim, chegamos finalmente! No caso do Higgs, isso pode ser traduzir na necessidade de esperar por todo um novo dia de trabalho! O trabalho complicado para encontrar o Higgs. Massa do par Higgs para gamma gamma medida pelo detector. Veja a figura acima encontrada na web — veja o link no texto da figura. A brincadeira é muito próxima da realidade. Para encontrar um Higgs, deve haver uma extensiva procura. Nessa figura, a quantidade de candidatos à Higgs aparece como um pequeno excesso cerca de eventos nos quatro bins entre e GeV.

Veja na parte superior da figura que esse excesso acontece sobre cerca de eventos distribuídos em quatro bins do histograma. Apenas sabemos que o Higgs contribui para o aumento da taxa de eventos naquela faixa de massa. Se uma nova técnica for desenvolvida, ela vai acabar sendo aplicada no trigger. Demora cerca de 15 a 20 segundos para se trocar o evento.

Outra ferramenta é a Camelia que pode fazer imagens 3D dos eventos vindos diretamente do detector ATLAS, e você pode brincar com o detector. O ponto importante aqui é observar que uma amostra aleatória é basicamente composta com eventos com pouco sinal muitos traços com pouco momento mas quase nenhuma atividade no calorímetro.

No próximo post, veremos os três níveis de trigger do ATLAS acessando a cada nível mais detalhes do detector. Você vai precisar disso para entender o trigger. A good electron shower can be composed of as many as a few hundred cells. For sure it is very important to measure the signal in every cell for every collision event that happens in ATLAS and that is not exactly something very easy to do. First, I propose to watch the left 12 secs video below.

It is an extract of the previous videos on how a particle makes the shower inside the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter, but now really focusing in the two important parts necessary to understand the format of the output electric signal. First, you see a particle crossing the lead absorber and producing 3 particles. We follow one of these while it crosses the 2 mm space between the absorber dark gray bar and the copper electrode copper-colored?!

This means, that the time to cross the gap is less than 0. This phase is called ionization or, Charge Deposition. The electron created all the negative electrons and positive argon ions and disappeared, going to the next cell.

The second part of the signal is the drift of the electrons freed from the argon atoms towards the electrodes. In the last scene of the movie, you will see three long white trails with the electrons drifting from the absorber until the electrode.

If you were in the top of a relatively tall building letting some water leak to the floor and, all of a sudden, you cut the flow, people looking at the column of water would still see the top of the water column falling for a few seconds.

This is in the second movie.

First, you got basically no signal that never exists in electronics — I should say : you got only noise! Then, the fast electron crosses almost immediately the gap and you get the highest possible signal. The higher the initial electron energy, the higher the number of electrons freed from the argon atoms and the higher is this initial current.

So, all we care for measurement purposes would be this initial current peak. The rest of the time the current gets dimmer and dimmer until we got only noise again. When the time scale on the movie changes, you are just seeing the drift moment. Now, in reality you never see this triangle. Trying to catch too many tens of samples represents an extra load to the electronics usually hitting a power heating or a data amount limitation and you have to be able to sample as least as possible.

The whole thing happens very quickly, so, you have to use some electronic device to find a better way to work this out. The value is the one marked with a star. In the first picture it is obvious that the shot was taken too soon, our artist was not even in the studio.

The second picture is the perfect sampling of the signal at the curve peak. If we always could do like that, this would be perfect. However, most of the time, you would be getting the signal after the peak was reached third picture and the energy of the cell would be underestimated. This is very bad. Sampling of the calorimeter signal performed too early.

Sampling of a calorimeter pulse taken at the best timing pulse peak. Sampling of a calorimeter signal taken too late.

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So, instead of trying to sample the direct signal and certainly making a mistake, we use an electronic circuit that re-shapes the signal. This circuit stretches the fast rising part so that, in the end, the peak value information is distributed over a much longer time spam something like ns.

The shaped pulse is shown in the figure below together with the original pulse. Now, multiple samples 5 at regular time intervals of this structure are acquired by an analogue-to-digital converter circuit which produces digital numbers related to the pulse value at the sampling moment marked by dots in the shaped pulse.

And from that, we can calculate the energy in the cell. LAr Pulse its shaped version and the samples. Due to the very long pulse ns and the very short interval between collisions 25 ns , it is not impossible rather, highly probable that a given cell will receive the signal from one collision while the signal from a previous collision is still in the drifting phase.

This effect is called pileUp, and we will discuss it in a much later post. The discussion today involved complex topics in engineering and physics applied to the detector signal.

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Design of a good stable and cheap shaping filter, sampling the signal at a cost and power effective rate, dealing with pile Up and performing energy calculation are quite general topics and many different detectors use similar techniques. Many of these topics are whole areas of study, specially in engineering. The signals produced by a detector are usually very fast or very slow and the shaping helps to extract their meaningful properties. For instance, for the Tile Calorimeter discussed in the previous post, the whole pulse is very short a few ns and you have to completely stretch it, while maintaining the area produced by the original signal proportional to the light captured.

Now we will stop the section on how a calorimeter works and we will start another one on how the trigger works to select good collisions for Higgs?? Vamos entender como isto é feito.

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Primeiramente, podemos ver um filme de 12 segundos no quadro abaixo à esquerda. Primeiro, pode-se ver uma partícula cruzando o absorvedor de chumbo e se produzindo 3 partículas. Seguimos uma destas enquanto ela cruza o pequeno espaço de 2 mm entre o absorvedor barra cinza escura e o eletrodo de cobre na cor do cobre, obviamente! Agora, vejamos o formato do sinal. Este se encontra no segundo filme.

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No resto do tempo, a corrente vai diminuindo lentamente até atingirmos o valor de ruído de novo. Isso nos leva a tentar capturar o mínimo possível de amostras. Como a coisa toda acontece muito rapidamente, você tem que usar alguma eletrônica para encontrar uma melhor forma de resolver este problema. Considere as três figuras abaixo.

O valor obtido é marcado com uma estrela. No segundo desenho vemos a amostragem perfeita, exatamente no pico. Entretanto, na maior parte das vezes, só conseguimos medir o sinal depois que o pico foi atingido terceira figura e a energia da célula fica sub-estimada. Colhendo a amostra do sinal do Calorímetro muito cedo. Colhendo a amostra do sinal do Calorímetro no momento certo pico de sinal.

Colhendo a amostra do sinal do Calorímetro muito tarde. Para se resolver esse problema, em vez de tentar medir amostras do sinal direto e, quase sempre fazer uma medida errada, usamos um circuito eletrônico que modifica a forma do sinal. O pulso assim reformatado aparece na figura abaixo junto com o pulso original.

O Pulso do Calorímetro, seu sinal reformatado e suas amostras. Este efeito é chamado de empilhamento PileUp e discutiremos ele num post futuro.

So, I am finally back from vacation, with the email list almost cleaned up and a list of tasks ready to start piling up before I can do anything.. In a nutshell : the usual working life.

The last time I posted something , the idea was to explain how a particle, like an electron, a photon or a neutron enters in the detector called calorimeter, hits the material named the absorber and gets a part of its original energy speed! Part of this energy however gets sampled by a material called see how physicists can be very creative sometimes the sampling material.

The sampling material uses some basic physics process to convert the energy it receives into some other physical quantity. In your home, you probably still have either in your wall or in your medical box an old style thermometer. I mean, not a digital one. It is built with a small scale and a little pipe containing either artificially colored alcohol the wall thermometer or mercury the medical box one.

Due to that, the same number of molecules now occupy a much larger space, increasing the necessary volume to contain them. This translates into a longer column which we can easily readout.

In here, we can identify all the elements of the sampling process. First, the heat modifies some inner property of the sampling material considered their internal heat or movement of the material.

Then, the material responds with some global change in a larger scale its volume increases and, in consequence, you can now measure with light and some light receiver your eyes the shift in the top position of the alcohol or mercury column. You might want to review the discussion about the absorption process on the previous post. There, we followed an electron as it enters the electromagnetic calorimeter and looses its energy by producing a huge shower of particles thanks to the lead absorbers.

When the electron is not in the absorber material, it is walking through argon cooled to o C in order to be kept liquid. The electron, or the particles that come out of it, crosses many atoms of Argon, giving so much energy to the argon electrons, that many of of them get free from the argon nuclei in a process called ionization see the white little dots in the movie!

The argon electron is now a little negative free charge and the rest of the atom is a positive free charge yellow. Remember that between one accordion plate and the next one, there are copper plates, the electrodes. Between the electrodes, there is a very high voltage V — almost 10 times the voltage in an electric wall plug in an European home.

The intensity of this current relates to the energy that the particle lost in the region around the electrode this region, we call a cell. The current sparks quite quickly around ns — you will later see that this is actually not as quick as we would love to! Using this information, we can calculate back the energy of the original particle that entered the calorimeter.

The absorption part is very similar to the Liquid Argon calorimeter particle hits, particle looses energy, shower forms with the difference that particles hit the nuclei and NOT the atoms as in the EM calorimeter case. The sampling material is an special plastic. The particles passing inside this plastic excite the electrons of the atoms that compose it. When the electron return to its natural position, the energy is released back in the form of photons, or, to simplify, light of a very specific frequency or a specific color, coincidence : Violet.

Some of these photons will be collected by an optical fiber and send to a special device that converts light into an electrical signal, a photomultiplier some of you may have played with that if your school ever had a project to build cosmic ray detectors!

See a photo of Cíbran Santamarina Rios, a colleague from Galicia beside a plastic scintillator detector the photomultiplier I hope I am saying this right, is in the bottom of the plastic plate — protected by a black cover! Photo with Ph. D Cibran Santamarina Rios assembling a cosmic rays detector.

In the next post, I will discuss a bit the outcome of the sampling process : the electrical signal and how it can be used to calculate the energy of a particle, specially when multiple particles hit the calorimeter in different collisions. Then, we will discuss how the trigger works to select particles for a discovery!!!! Finalmente de volta das férias, com uma lista de emails quase limpa e uma lista de tarefas começando a crescer antes que eu possa tentar fazer algo… Em resumo, uma semana normal de trabalho.

Assim sendo, como podemos usar o material de amostragem no caso dos dois calorímetros do ATLAS para medir a energia das partículas que entram nestes detetores?

Comecemos com um exemplo bem simples. Isso se traduz numa coluna mais longa que pode ser facilmente lida. Neste exemplo, podemos identificar todos os elementos do processo de amostragem. Naquele exemplo, seguimos um elétron que entra no calorímetro eletromagnético e perde sua energia se transformando numa enorme cascata de partícula graças aos absorvedores de chumbo.

Vamos usar outro pequeno filme Episódio II para entender o que acontece. Foto do Ph. D Cibran Santamarina Rios montando um detetor de raios cósmicos. No próximo post , pretendo discutir um pouco o resultado do processo de amostragem : o sinal elétrico produzido e que pode ser usado para se calcular a energia da partícula, especialmente quando a partícula atinge o calorímetro em diferentes colisões.

E quase tinha esquecido. In my last posting I tried to give a very general view of what happens when protons knock each other inside the LHC beam pipe. So, as detectives, we collect this information with our gigantic detectors and play around to find everything we can about as many collision events as possible.

And yes, you may have just caught what I wrote there : a photon a particle of light can pass, in such extreme conditions, a great amount of material. That is very true and happens in every collision of the LHC! What do we do with these traces? We use different detectors which are specialized in the different kinds of particles that can show up.

Today I will talk about the detectors with which I worked all my professional life : Calorimeters.. Well, there is also an entry about Calorimeter in particle physics in the Wikipedia, which, by the way, may need some improvement! In the particle physics calorimeter, the incoming particle hits atoms or atoms nucleus of a material which is named the absorber.

It does not warm too much! The energy of the particle hitting the absorber will be converted in multiple particles inside the absorber which will carry a fraction of the initial particle energy.

This forms a shower of particles in the detector structure. Usually interleaved with the absorbers, another material, the sampling material the thermometer!

If you can estimate precisely which fraction of the energy is lost so, not measured! A very simple quick answer is that the amount of sampling material to completely contain the shower and measure a very high energy particle would make a very very big calorimeter many tens of meters. So, we have to use the absorbers! The sound is in English and the subtitles in portuguese. In this case, the absorbers are lead plates organized in a funny accordion shape which convert the energy of the original particle into multiple ones with smaller energy see the real lead plates here.

The sampling material that initially amazed me a lot is liquid argon at o C!! Because of that, the whole calorimeter is installed in a gigantic vessel see a photo!

We will talk about the sampling process later. The calorimeter is divided into cells formed by the electrodes in the video which collect the energy in a their vicinity. Very detailed algorithms pick up which cells were activated by the shower and calculate the shower energy and geometry. There is another very interesting fact that happens thanks to the absorbers.

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Imagine that you are a very high speed photon or electron heading to a wall of lead. I find easier to understand if you imagine a wall filled with plastic bubbles with m diameter which are the lead atoms.

You the electron will certainly very quickly hit one ball and loose your speed and energy. Now, suppose that you are a hadronic particle like a proton or a neutron , you see very little the bubbles. Actually, a hadronic particle interacts mostly over the strong force, so, mostly with the atoms nucleus.

If the electron-sphere were m, the nuclei is only a millimeter, so, very, very tiny and with lots of space between then at least m! This way, the plastic bubbles disappear and you can now cross a much larger amount of material without finding anything to stop you.

So, the shower will start much deeper in the detector, depending on whether you are an electron or a neutron or proton. Both tasks make these devices very attractive and quite often found in High Energy Physics. In one, a di-photon, you see that the photons leave two small yellow bands in the green section EM calorimeter but never touch the red section the hadronic calorimeter. In the second picture, of an event with two jets, we see that these, being hadronic like protons or neutrons, cross the full EM calorimeter up to the hadronic one.

So, hadronic particles go deeper in the detector as discussed above. Hope you had enjoyed this view of a calorimeter. Next week, I will take a little pause as it is vacation time! But on the next one, I will discuss how to go from the sampling material to an electric pulse in both main ATLAS calorimeters Lar and Tile, as they are called!! E, sim, você talvez tenha percebido algo interessante que eu escrevi acima : um fóton partícula de luz pode atravessar, nessas condições extremas, uma grande quantidade de material.

Isso acontece em todas as colisões do LHC! Assim sendo, o que fazemos com tais traços? Usamos diferentes detetores especializados nos diferentes tipos de partículas que possam vir a aparecer. Hoje, eu vou comentar sobre o detetor com o qual eu trabalhei por toda minha vida profissional : O Calorímetro.

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